Glaucoma is an eye disease where the number of factors includes, mainly optic nerve will damage, intraocular pressure will increase and visual field defects occur, but field defect may happen in normal eye pressure.
We advise regular yearly eye check up need after 40, optic nerve cupping check-up, eye pressure measurement, visual field test or Perimetry do perform. If you are suspect of glaucoma you definitely go through this test every year.
Eye Anatomy to Understand the Origin of Glaucoma:-
The front part is clear cornea it allows the light entering, the colour part is iris which helps to control pupil to allows proper amount light, the lens focus light to retina this is a photosensitive layer, at last, optic nerve will carry stimulation to the brain.
The eyeball is full with clear fluid, the front part of the eye filled with aqueous humour and the back part is vitreous humour which maintains the shape of the eyeball.
The iris edge has a drainage system, aqueous humour flows through this system, this proper system of drainage helps to keep eye pressure normal if it is not working cause eye pressure vary. High eye pressure damages the optic nerve fiber layer and gradual loss of visual field.
Types of Glaucoma:-
1. Congenital Glaucoma:-
High intraocular pressure due to abnormal development of the angle of the anterior chamber with improper drainage of aqueous result vision loss.
2. Adult Glaucoma:-
- Primary open angle:- Where the angle of anterior chamber appears normal but sometimes eye pressure will increase more than a 20mmHg whole day, optic nerve cupping, visual field defects. It has unknown cause though we can consider these as risk factors are- increase eye pressure, family history, myopia, diabetes, smoking, steroid intake.
- Primary angle closure: It presents with closed angle or narrow-angle of the anterior chamber, the result is sudden high IOP due to aqueous outflow block. Risk factors are-person with high plus power, family history, application of dilating drops.
- Secondary glaucoma: Associated with secondary causes, lens matter leakage or hyper mature cataract, uveitis, intraocular tumour, steroid drops or tablets, trauma or intraocular haemorrhage.
Tests for Diagnose Glaucoma: –
It is important to protect our sight, first 3 tests are primarily necessary to perform before starting treatment or making the decision. A doctor will recommend these tests because all factors should make sense to prescribe treatments. An individual can always take a second opinion to be sure on the diagnosis.
- Intraocular pressure measurement which is Tonometry.
- Ophthalmoscopically dilated eye exam for optic nerve cupping.
- Perimetry, visual field check-up.
- Gonioscopy to evaluate the angle where iris and cornea attached.
- Pachymetry to corneal thickness measurement.
Glaucoma Treatment: –
- Eyedrops to maintain eye pressure by the use of Beta-blockers drops.
- Medical procedures are by using laser removes a small amount of tissue from the edge of the iris so it makes a tiny hole to maintain the eye pressure, is called Peripheral Iridotomy.
- Another surgical procedure is Trabeculectomy which opens the drainage path within eyes and allows more fluids to drain to reduce inside pressure.