Fast-forwarding to modern times, both machines and hydraulic hammers are used to empower the forging methods in order to forge steel or other metals.
Stretching its history back to the ancient times, the forging process began during the ancient period to produce or manufacture a number of end materials that hold different properties. Fast-forwarding to modern times, both machines and hydraulic hammers are used to empower the forging methods in order to forge steel or other metals.
Moving back to the history pages, it was a forge smith who was the main protagonist behind manufacturing the early kind of forged steel. The forge smith used to at first wet the metal and followed it up by striking it above an anvil by using a forging hammer. It was in Persia and China, wherein the first forging process took its foundling steps. With advancements and human evolution, contemporary methods started to shape up through the hands of steel forging manufacturers and act during the 1800s.
The Process of Steel Forging
When the steel is heated to a forging temperature, it tends to become ductile as well as malleable and is then molded to a shape of its choice by applying a certain level of pressure. With precise processing techniques, steel forging enables a billet of steel to be shaped in a fixed manner without even cracking owing to its plasticity.
The process of steel forging requires an induction heating system, forge oven, or forge furnace for heating the steel to a required temperature. The metallurgical recrystallization and the result of grain refinement come from the deformation process as well as form the thermal cycle. This helps strengthen the resultant forged steel product, especially in terms of its toughness and durability.
Steel Forging Classification
According to steel forging manufacturers, it can be classified into three categories depending upon the forging temperature; these are:
- Hot forging of Steel – Herein the forging temperature is between a Celsius of around 950 to 1250 degrees, which is higher than the recrystallization temperature. This results in great formability and needs low forming forces.
- Warm Forging of Steel – The temperature here lies between 750 to 950 degrees Celsius. This leads to limited formability, unlike the former, and also requires greater forming forces as compared to hot forging.
- Cold Forging of Steel – Here, as the name might suggest, the forging temperature is at a room condition. Hence, the self-heating is done up to 150 degrees Celsius due to the formation of energy. It leads to low formability, while requires high forming forces.
Applications or Uses of Steel Forging
Oil & Gas Industry – Stainless steel forgings are comprised of pipe fittings in the oil and gas industry, like flanges, o-lets reducers, and T-pieces, and even pump casings and impellors.
Auto Industry – The automobile industry also uses stainless steel forging for crankshafts, number of pulleys, various gear wheels, radiators, coolers, pumps, and exhaust components.
Aircraft Industry – Owing to the strength to weight ratio, airframe members are produced by being forging from stainless steel alloy. Various fasteners like screws are even made from stainless steel grades.
Chemical Plants – Here the usage is similar to that of the oil and gas industry.
Food Handling and Storage – Components of oven and stove, like doors and gas hobs and even hot water spray heads, cooking utensils and cutleries, are also forged with stainless steel.
According to various steel forging manufacturers, there are a number of use cases of steel forging and the above applications precisely highlights the same.